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November 09, 2004

絶対評価と相対評価

今日は評価の基準について考えてみます。
戦前は学校教育の下で行われていた「学籍簿」では「優、良、可、不可」の評価は、教師の主観的な判断に委ねられていました。
その反省をふまえ戦後は「相対評価」がとられるようになります。つまり、子どもが集団の中でどれくらいの位置にいるかということを、5段階、あるいは10段階で表す評価です。
しかし、この方法では「テストはいいけれど、、、」「成績さえければ、、、」などの弊害がでてきました。
そこで1971年の指導要録改訂で「一定の比率に児童を割りふらないように」とされました。
その後、1991年の改訂で、小学校低学年で評定欄の廃止、中・高学年で絶対評価を加味した相対評価という部分的な修正が加えられました。
それでも、なお問題は残り、2002年、根本的な方針として「絶対評価」が打ち出されました。
ある基準があってそれに到達していれば5,、もう少しなら4,,,といように、テストの点数に関わらず、「到達度」を評価するものです。
また、「関心、意欲、態度」など「個人のやる気」も評価の対象になりました。
ここまでが、「評価の歴史」です。詳しく知りたい方は「絶対評価」という項目で検
索をすると、関連サイトが出てきます。

さて、問題は、この一連の流れをどのように解釈して、なおかつ願わくば子どもたちにどうすれば一番いいかを呈示することでしょう。

私自身の考えは「一連の教育が全て変わる必要」があるということです。
つまり、小学校、中学校の現場で「ゆとり教育の導入により、絶対評価に変わった」としても、さらに上の高校では、成績調査書は「相対評価」であるとしたら、それは、たんに「きやすめ」を保護者に、「重労働」を教師に強いる事でしかないと思うのです。
残念ながら、現状では「絶対評価」が「高校入試」になんの意味もないことを教師、保護者、子どもたち、すべてが知っています。
したがって、だれも学校の成績をあてにしない、というか信頼しない、
という現実があります。
絶対評価で5をとっても高校にはいれるの?
と、思うわけです。
子どもたちはますます、塾の門を叩き、公教育は置き去りにされていきます。
現場の先生方も負担だけが増え、中身は薄っぺらになった学校の授業に大いなる不満を持っています。

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